Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Romanticism and Transcendentalism Essay Example for Free

Sentimentalism and Transcendentalism Essay 1. In the wake of looking into the Romanticism asset page, list three qualities of Romanticism. Additionally, distinguish three creators of the Romantic time frame. * Three attributes of Romanticism are energy about nature, vision and patriotism. Three creators of the Romantic Era: Edgar Allan Poe, William Cullen Bryant and Lord Byron. 2. Utilizing the Transcendentalism asset page, list three attributes of Transcendentalism * Three quality of Transcendentalism are nature, instinct and the idea of God being a piece of nature. 3. What was Transcendentalists' opinion about nature? What did Transcendentalists feel about the characteristic idea of people (were people innately acceptable or underhanded)? * Transcendentalists had a lot of regard for nature and had faith in the best and integrity of people. 4. Depict two explicit things Thoreau found out about existence by interpreting the lines underneath in your own words: I went to the forested areas since I wished to live intentionally, to front just the fundamental unavoidable truths that apply to everyone, and check whether I was unable to realize what it needed to educate, and not, when I came to bite the dust, find that I had not lived. I needed to live profoundly and suck out all the marrow of life. (Walden) * Walden needed to get familiar with life so as to comprehend it totally by living it. I think Walden got the chance to grasp that a few things aren’t important so as to live cheerful and in the correct manner. He understood that he didn’t truly recognize what life was, until he was to encounter things himself. 5. Which two extraordinary latent opposition pioneers were affected by the reason of Transcendentalism through crafted by Thoreau and Emerson? *

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Business Writing Production of Australian Companies

Question: Depict about the Business Writing for Production of Australian Companies. Answer: Presentation: Bird valley wellbeing nourishments are an Australian Company that produces sound and natural café which is made of dried leafy foods. For most recent three years, the business has been working in Adelaide. Individuals are presently focusing on sound food and the organization being slanted towards creation of the solid nourishments. Finding and conversation: Corporate Social obligation (CSR): Corporate social obligation is the strategy by which the organization picks up the financial just as the social and the ecological methodology. A CSR is the strategy that includes gifts that are given out of the companys continues to include the greener business tasks. The classifications of CSR are as per the following: Ecological endeavors: The CSR centers around the earth. Business working in the enormous scope is expected to keep the standards of the corporate social obligation and the organization should search to benefit the general public. Moral work rehearses: The Company can likewise show their corporate social duty by treating their representatives decently and morally. Magnanimity: Business additionally practice social duty by giving to national and neighborhood good cause (Pawlik and Neumann 2015). Direction from worldwide standards: The most popular rules are the OECD Guidelines for the global companies. The legislature to the organizations gives these rules. The deliberate standards target improving the remote speculation atmosphere and upgrade the commitment to the practical advancement that is made by the worldwide companies. The rules of OECD require the organizations to add to the financial, social and the ecological concerns. The rules have the general standards for the organizations that work inside the enormous scope (Baumann-Pauly et al. 2013). Standards of CSR are additionally laid in the United Nations Global Compact; it is the arrangement of rules that advances the requirement for the human rights, natural protection and the work rights. Administration perspective on CSR: CSR can likewise be seen as a worldwide administration system. The perspective on the as a worldwide administration instrument rises up out of the worldwide transnational establishments that grew before in the twentieth century, for example, the United countries, The universal work association, the world bank and some more. These organizations and the courses of action are intended to make the universal request around the mainstays of the majority rules system, regard for the human rights and thinking about the financial turn of events (Wu, Lin, and Lin 2013). Business perspective on CSR: Business pioneers manage the CSR issues with the assistance of the particular business association, for example, the Global Reporting Initiative, the UN Global Compact and the world business gathering for the maintainable turn of events. Subsequently, CSR are drawn from the idea of the different fields that incorporates the board, morals, brain research, human science, money and bookkeeping. For instance, ecological exposures in organization detailing are more common than references to the morals (Patrizia 2012). CSR is the obligation of the association for the effect of its choices and exercises on the general public and the earth through straightforward and the moral conduct that: Adds to the feasible turn of events Mulls over the perspectives on the investors Conforms to relevant law and reliable with the global standards of the conduct (Gupta and Kaur 2013). Practical ecologically neighborly bundling: The fundamental test in planning a bundle is to keep up a harmony among bundling and item, as the principle reason for bundling is to spare the item, permit it to reach in unique condition to client and keep them from misfortunes at family unit, retail and conveyance level. To guarantee supportable bundle of item, plan have an extraordinary effect. Practical bundling must meet the four models: bundling must be financially savvy for all the clients, it ought to be productive, that is, made of utilizing vitality just as material assets effectively, ought to be cyclic, that is, ought to have the option to be recuperated through regular or modern framework and must be protected that implies liberated from poisonous and dirtying material. Plastics are sturdy and adaptable however they are not condition well disposed as theyare made of carbon and different dangerous materials. As bird valley, are utilizing polypropylene for bundling their lunch room, which isn't biodegradable, they ought to consider about nature and move their bundling material to something, which is condition benevolent. The organization can utilize biodegradable, oil safe, warm capable material. One better choice will be to utilize hard paper or fiber materials to pack their café. An alluring fiber box, which is reusable and condition well disposed, will draw in clients. Another alternative is to pack in hard paper box with pleasant hues. Paper box may not be reusable however will be condition amicable and far superior choice than polypropylene (Oliver-Ortega et al. 2016). Diminishing water utilization: Water is viewed as generally significant and accessible item in preparing of condition, yet as time passing on, suppositions have started to change as dry spell condition and water contamination emergencies are quickly expanding because of shortage of water. Therefore, cost related with utilization and release of water is expanding quickly. As Eagle valley is creating vitality bars, which require huge measure of water, this is the high time, that they ought to truly consider limiting water utilization. To limit the water utilization they should consider exchange approach to safeguard water and increment the wastewater treatment cost. They can introduce a checking framework to watch the wellspring of water, amount of water released and utilization of water per unit. They can likewise introduce water tanks to top it off with water. At every possible opportunity, water weight ought to be decreased to limit lost because of spillage (Cosgrove and Rijsberman 2014). End and suggestions: From the above conversations, it tends to be reasoned that, to improve the maintainability of business development, Eagle valley wellbeing Foods should execute CSR to accomplish better an incentive for business. It will assist them with maintaining corporate arrangements, asset designation, records and review procedure, mindfulness and preparing in better and proficient way. To make the bundling of their café condition agreeable, they can utilize biodegradable fiber material or paper boxes as opposed to utilizing unsafe polypropylene materials. At long last, to decrease water utilization in café making process, they should expand the sum in reusing of wastewater area and screen the water utilization and release of waste water appropriately. Reference: Baumann-Pauly, D., Wickert, C., Spence, L.J. furthermore, Scherer, A.G., 2013. Sorting out corporate social duty in little and huge firms: Size issues. Diary of Business Ethics, 115(4), pp.693-705. Cosgrove, W.J. what's more, Rijsberman, F.R., 2014. World water vision: making water everyone's business. Routledge. Gupta, G. what's more, Kaur, S., 2013. Reasonable Development-Through Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in Times of Economic Slowdown. Siddhant-A Journal of Decision Making, 13(3), pp.203-209. Oliver-Ortega, H., Granda, L.A., Espinach, F.X., Delgado-Aguilar, M., Duran, J. what's more, Mutj, P., 2016. Firmness of bio-based polyamide 11 fortified with softwood stone ground-wood strands as an option in contrast to polypropylene-glass fiber composites. European Polymer Journal, 84, pp.481-489. Patrizia, G., 2012. Social execution improves money related execution. Advantages from CSR. THE ANNALS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ORADEA, p.112. Pawlik, T. what's more, Neumann, S., 2015. Usage of CSR Aspects in Human Resources Management (HRM) Strategies ofMaritime Supply Chains Main Involved Parties. Wellbeing of Marine Transport: Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, p.55. Wu, H., Lin, F. what's more, Lin, S., 2013. The Influence of CSR Communication on company's Socially Responsible Competitiveness-An examination from the viewpoint of collaboration. Diary of Convergence Information Technology, 8(10), p.914.

Friday, July 31, 2020

Spy vs. Spy

Spy vs. Spy Saudi Arabia and the Global Community Thursday, February 16, 4pm Bartos Theater, MIT Starting shortly across campus from here is an interesting lecture/discussion. The featured speaker will be Prince Turki Al-Faisal, Saudi Arabias ambassador to the United States. The forum will be moderated by MIT Professor of Chemistry John Deutch. The talk is hosted by the Center for International Studies. What makes the talk particularly intriguing is the roles previously played by the two speakers. Prince Turki served as director general of Saudi Arabias main foreign intelligence service, the General Intelligence Directorate, from 1977 to 2001. Prof. Deutch ran the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency as Director of Central Intelligence from 1995 to 1996. This event is not being webcast, but some very interesting international affairs lectures at MIT are available from MIT World: Nuclear Technology in a Changing World: Have We Reached a Turning Point? Mohamed ElBaradei The World is Flat Thomas L. Friedman Comparative Insights: Marshall Plan, Japan, and Iraq John W. Dower, Charles S. Maier Reflections George Shultz America at War? Helen Thomas, David Thorburn The World Economy Olivier Blanchard, Ricardo Caballero Enjoy!

Friday, May 22, 2020

Sigmund Freud s Theory Of Psychology - 942 Words

Sigmund Freud continues to be the subject of conversation in the field of psychology. The conversations seem to lead to Freud versus another imperative person in the field, such as B.F. Skinner. According to Overskeid (2007) most research articles focus on the difference between the two. Here the author takes a different approach, looks at similarities within the psychanalysis dynamics. The two agreed upon human predicament that people are controlled by forces which they are not conscious (Overskeid, 2007). Skinner and Freud on behavior both agreed upon there are two systems that control behaviors (Overskeid, 2007). The two systems operates outside of any awareness that has a powerful hold on thinking, feelings, without the person comprehending the process of why (Overskeid, 2007). Dreams and the causes of them Skinner acknowledged Freud and him were on the same page, noting Freud has plausible connections between dreams and variables with one’s life (Skinner, 1953). The ps ychoanalytic view really interested Skinner, he subjected himself to the Rorschach testing, also noted he could benefit from undergoing psychoanalysis (Skinner, 1983). Skinner and Freud never met each other but had some similarities and differences but they both respected each other’s work while agreeing to disagree with theories (Overskeid, 2007). Dilemmas in Psychology Therapy would not be therapy if there were no challenges such as terms of resistance, transference and countertransference. EachShow MoreRelatedSigmund Freud s Theory Of Psychology1222 Words   |  5 Pagesof Europe, an Austrian neurologist and founder of psychoanalysis named Sigmund Freud constructed an original approach to the understanding of human psychology. Prior to the founding of psychoanalysis, mental illness was thought to come from some kind of deterioration or disease rooted in the brain. The certitude that physical diseases of the brain induced mental illness signified that psychological origins were disregarded. Freud insisted on studying the topic hoping to change the way society thoughtRead MoreSigmund Freud s Theory Of Psychology1283 Words   |  6 PagesSigmund Freud (1856-1939), is a pioneer in the field of psychology in various ways. His dedication to his field helped shape the minds of many nineteen-century contemporary schools of thought. Most notably, Freud’s work in psychoanalytic theory, according to Tan (2011) earned him the title of, â€Å"father of psychoanalysis† (p. 322). Moreover, Tan Taykeyesu (2011) report that Freud’s genius is not just in psychoanalysis, but also when we â€Å"think Oedipus complex, infantile sexuality, and repression†Read MoreSigmund Freud s Theory Of Psychology1233 Words   |  5 Pages Sigmund Freud is the idealist that concepted the idea of verbal psychotherapy, Freudian Psychology. His theories of psychoanalysis are based upon understand the unconscious mind. His ideals portray that there are three key components that are responsible for a human beings personality. These components include id, ego and superego. Freud s major contributions to todays society and study of psychology are his theories on the unconscious mind, dreams, libido, infantile sexuality, repression and transferenceRead MoreSigmund Freud s Theory Of Psychology1299 Words   |  6 Pagesand touch known as the â€Å"mesmeric pass† (Kirsch et.al., 1995). Psychoanalysis was introduced by Sigmund Freud. Freud conceptualized the mind, metaphorically, as an ancient, buried ruin which had to been unearthed much like an archeologist would unearth the treasures of an ancient civilization. Freud s influence can be traced from his hard core natural science background as a student of neurology. Freud s version of psychoanalysis had its predecessor in the work with hysterics conducted by neurologistsRead MoreSigmund Freud s Theory Of Psychology Essay967 Words   |  4 PagesPsychoanalysis is an approach to psychology that was made well known as a way to bring for the unconscious to the conscious. It is theorized that the memories that we store in our unconscious affects us, and can cause neurotic behaviors. The approaches also include Analytical, Individual. Three people that worked on these theories are Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, and Alfred Adler. Each of these men approached psychoanalysis in both similar and individual ways, and have thei r own theories that will be furtherRead MoreSigmund Freud s Theory Of Psychology And Psychology1073 Words   |  5 PagesLuwanna Perry Theories Counseling 06/27/2014 Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud is considered to be the most important figures in the field of psychiatry and psychology. His ideas about psychoanalysis were developed in the 1800’s but are still being used today in the mental health field (www.studymode.com). Sigmund Freud was one of the pioneers/innovator of modern-day psychology. â€Å"As the originator of psychoanalysis, Freud distinguished himself as anRead MoreSigmund Freud s Theory Of Psychology1568 Words   |  7 Pages Freud Sigmund Yifan Wang Current issues in history Vanier College 2014-11-11 Freud Sigmund In the 19th century, people progressed toward a new era of scientific revolution with new inventions and technologies. Doctors find treatment to heal cancer and people lives longer than before. On the other hand, Freud Sigmund the Jewish psychiatrist offered a new cure to mental illness that individual suffers from (The European Graduate School, 2012). Although he may have the most of influenceRead MoreSigmund Freud s Theory Of Psychology Essay980 Words   |  4 PagesAt the start psychology was not a science; it was ‘made up’. In pre-historic age it was believed any behaviour that swayed from ‘the norm’ was due to demonic spirits possessing the brain. Advances in treatments and medicine, allow us to recognise how barbarous this belief was. The progress of these advances was clear by the opening of the first experimental laboratory in 1879 by Wilhelm Wundt. Wundt’s establishment of psychology as an academic discipline exaggerated how obsolete the pr evious wayRead MoreSigmund Freud s Theory Of Psychology Essay1215 Words   |  5 PagesSigmund Freud, originally a neurologist, is a well-known psychologist that developed the field of psychoanalytic psychology. Although he died in 1939 his theories and practices live on and many psychologists will still consult Freud’s ideas when faced with specific cases. Freud was a firm believer in the notion that sex and aggression is the root of motivation for all human behavior and many people agree with him, but one of his former collogues, Alfred Adler, would come to disagree with this ideaRead MoreSigmund Freud s Theory Of Psychology1939 Words   |  8 Pagesdevelopments in psychology that support the where our development into each stage come from. For starters there’s Sigmund Freud, a main contributor to psychology (neurologist), that believed there is a specific order in the stages of development. His stages are called Psychosexual Stages of Development. The Five stages include Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latent, and Genital. (As seen in Figure 1) These developments are more on the physical side to growing into puberty and so on. Freuds ideas are the first

Sunday, May 10, 2020

Economic performance in Malaysia rise of Islamic banking - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 18 Words: 5529 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Economics Essay Type Argumentative essay Did you like this example? Today in Malaysia, Islamic banking and finance has become a main flow in the financial and economic activities and has become accepted by the people. The increase participation from the conventional banks and creates a healthy competition among the Islamic banking and thus leads to the enhancement of the product and better services to the customer. In this paper we are discuss more about the history of Islamic banking in the past and present, the objectives, philosophy and principles and of Islamic banking, modern banking operations according to Shariah principles. The word bank is derived from the Italian word banco, the origin meaning is shelf or bench. (Mohammad Muslehuddin) Islamic banking is banking based on Islamic law (Shariah). It follows the Shariah, called  ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ qh muamalat (Islamic rules on transactions).The rules and practices of  ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ qh muamalat came from the Quran and the Sunnah, and other secondary sources of Islamic law such as opinions collectively agreed among Shariah scholars (ijma), analogy (qiyas) and personal reasoning (ijtihad). Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Economic performance in Malaysia rise of Islamic banking" essay for you Create order Its also known as participant banking,  Islamic banking  refers to a system of banking  or banking activity that is follow with the principles of Islamic law  (Sharia) and its practical application through the development of Islamic economics. Sharia prohibits the payment or acceptance of interest fees for loans of money (riba), for specific terms, as well as investing in businesses that provide goods or services considered contrary to its principles (Haram, forbidden). While these principles  were used as the basis for an economy in earlier times, it is only in the late 20th century that a number of Islamic banks were formed to apply these principles to  private  or semi-private  commercial  institutions within the Muslim community. (Wikipedia) Islamic banking system in Malaysia comprises of the Islamic banking industry, the takaful industry, the Islamic money market, and the Islamic capital market. Firstly is Islamic banking industry. Islamic banking in Malaysia  began in September 1963 when Perbadanan Wang Simpanan Bakal-Bakal Haji (PWSBH) was established. PWSBH was set up as an institution for  muslims  to save for their  Hajj  expenses. In 1969, PWSBH merged with Pejabat Urusan Haji to form Lembaga Urusan dan Tabung Haji (now known as Lembaga Tabung Haji). In Malaysia, separate Islamic legislation and banking regulations exist side-by-side with those for the conventional banking system. The legal basis for the establishment of Islamic banks was the Islamic Banking Act (IBA) which came into effect on 7 April 1983. The IBA provides BNM with powers to supervise and regulate Islamic banks, similar to the case of other licensed banks. The Government Investment Act 1983 was also enacted at the same time to empower the Government of Malaysia to issue Government Investment Issue (GII), which are government securities issued based on Syariah principles. The long-term objective of BNM is to create an Islamic Banking system operating on a parallel basis with the conventional banking system. However, similar to any banking system, an Islamic banking system requires three vital elements to qualify as a viable system, for example number of players, a broad variety of instruments, and an Islamic money market. In addition, an Islamic banking system must also reflect the sosio-economic values in Islam and must be Islamic in both substance and form. BNM adopted step-by-step approach to achieve the objectives. The first step is to spread the good of Islamic Banking was to disseminate Islamic banking on a nation-wide basis. BNM decided to allow the existing banking institution to offer Islamic banking services using their existing infrastructure and branches. The option was seen as the most effective and efficient mode of increasing the number of institutions offering Islamic banking services at the lowest cost. On March 1993 BNM introduced a scheme known as Skim Pembankan Tanpa Faedah. The first Islamic bank established in the country was Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad (BIMB) which commenced operations on 1 July 1983. Same with its objectives, the banking activities of the bank are based on Syariah principles. BIMB has proved to be a viable banking institution with its activity expanding rapidly throughout the country with a network of 80 branches and 1,200 employees. The bank was listed on the Main Board of the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange on 17 January 1992. (Pledgeco.com) On 1 October 1999, a second Islamic bank namely Bank Muamalat Malaysia Berhad (BMMB) start its operations. The establishment BMMB was effect of the merger between Bank Bumiputra Malaysia Berhad (BBMB) and Bank of Commerce (Malaysia) Berhad (BOCB). In addition, BMMB was given 40 branches of BBMB and BBMBK in various locations throughout Malaysia and a staffs of 1,000 moves from BBMB, BOCB and BBMBK. In terms of products and services, there are more than 40 Islamic financial products and services that maybe offered by the banks using various Islamic concepts such as Qardhul Hassan, Mudharabah, Musyarakah, Murabahah,BaiBithaman Ajil, Ijarah, istisna, and Ijarah Thumma Al-Bai. Secondly is the takaful industry. Takaful  is an Islamic  insurance  concept which is in Islamic  muamalat  (Islamic banking), observing the rules and regulations of  Islamic law. This concept has been practised in various forms for over 1400 years.  Muslim jurists acknowledge that the basis of shared responsibility in the system of  aquila  as practised between Muslims of Mecca and Medina laid the foundation of mutual insurance. (Wikipedia) Takaful as a system of Islamic insurance is based on co-operation and mutual help for the good of the society. Furthermore, is the Islamic money market. The Islamic Interbank Money Market (IIMM) was introduced on 3 January 1194 by BNM. The activities of the IIMM included the purchase and sale of Islamic financial instruments among market participants (including the Bank), interbank investment activities through the Mudaraba Interbank Investment (MII) Scheme and a cheque clearing and settlement system through an Islamic Interbank Cheque Clearing System (IICCS).(Islamic world.net) Last but not least is the Islamic capital market. The Islamic Capital Market (ICM) refers to market transaction that carried out in ways that do not conflict with the conscience of Muslims and the religion of Islam. In other words, the ICM represents an assertion of religious law in the capital market transaction where the market should be free from the involvement of prohibited activities by Islam, as well as free from the elements such as usury (riba), gambling (maisir) and ambiguity (gharar). (Islamic world.net) Bank Practice: Past and Present The banking practice has already existed before the emergence of modern bank. This is because modern bank practice is based on ancient time that who first developed banking system which confines money exchange, interest, loans, depositing operations, credit transfer and etcetera. The ancient that are practice banking such as Babylon, Greece, Roman and the era of Prophet S.A.W. 2.1 Babylonian Civilization Babylon was ancient empire situated on the Euphrates River about 50 miles of modern Baghdad in southern Mesopotamia. Hammurabi was emerging as a ruler of Babylon then he expanded the empire and organized its own laws that called Code of Hammurabi around 2000 BC. The development economy of Babylon started at the end of 6000 BC by private banking system. This private banking business have owned by the families of Egibi. They were lending the loan to people by charging interest from 20% to 30 %. At the Babylon ancient, they are using silver coins as a medium exchange in any transaction for paying purpose. For the measuring, the silver will be arbitrated equal to value of the things. They were using silver coins because silver coins easy to keep and to be used. Besides using silver coins as the changes, they also used gold. The gold has been valued fifteen times more than silver coins valued. Upon the financing that increasingly exist, the power had legislated under Law of Hammurabi. It contained the rule of banking operation, interest loan and deposits. Babylon considered temple as the safe place to deposits their money. 2.2 Greek Civilization The banking practice in the ancient Greek is not differing much with ancient Babylonian. The ancient using temple as the safe place in deposited their money. The people in the ancient Greek, doing activities such as accepting deposits, exchanging money and making transfer between the difference cities and giving that is not differ than ancient Babylonian. However, during this ancient, the interest has been imposed on the lending of money within 6% to 12%. According to Henri Pirenne, an important transaction the interest rate was charged to 10% but at that time the interest arose to 50% or 100% or higher. 2.3 Roman Civilization Ancient Rome located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome and become the largest empire in the ancient world as early 10th BC. As a vast area of land, the main economy for ancient Rome focused on farming and trade. At the time, the empire imposed for tax collection. Usually the empire collected production tax from conquered territory. The tax was imposed on grain-producing lands. For that, the empire had developed coinage system with using bronze, brass and precious metal coins. But the end of 3rd century, major problems of debasements of the imperial currency had undermined in the coinage and the empire demand for irregular tax payments. 2.4 Banking Practice in the time of Prophet Muhammad S.A.W. Prophet Muhammad S.A.W. was born on 12 Rabiul Awal AD 570 in Mecca is now Saudi Arabia. His father was died before he born following with his mother when he at six years old. The Prophet S.A.W. was brought up by his grandfather, Abd al-Muttalib and after that by his uncle Abu Talib. When the Prophet S.A.W. was young, his known as Al-Amin (the trustworthy) because his attitude that very nice and honest in every work and his life live. The Prophet S.A.W. then married to the wealthy widow Khadijah, a trader. At the age of 40, the Prophet S.A.W. received first revelations at Mount Hira. The Prophet S.A.W. has been appointed by Allah S.W.T. to spread Islam to all man to worship only one God and leave the futile things. However, the Prophet S.A.W. got against by the Quraisy and only several followers that believe on him. This situation makes the Prophet and his followers left Mecca and went to Yathrib (Medina) to spread Islam. The year the Prophet S.A.W. migrated to Yathrib, started the Islamic years which represented AH (after hijrah). Banking practice has already existed during the Prophet S.A.W. even bank institution does not exist yet. This was reported by Anas r.a the Prophet S.A.W selling a carpet and water vessel and was calling out for customers. A customers bid for one dirham, another customer bid for two dirham then the Prophet sold to him. During the Prophet S.A.W., he prohibits riba in any business transaction and followed the sharia compliants. There also developed a profit sharing in lending money. All the activities business based of partnership. There have different between before and after the coming of Islam. That time also, all Muslim have to pay the zakat in order to help the development of Muslim society. Finance system become more clearly and systematic when era Sayyidina Umar al-Khattab r.a. this is because in era Sayyidina Umar al-Khattab exist Bait al-Mal which is collected all property country from zakat, jizyah, kharaj and ghanimah. 3.0 Historical Development of Islamic Financial System in Malaysia Before the Islamic banking system had applied in Malaysia, Malaysia using conventional financial system to fulfill their financial needs. The roots of Islamic banking back to 1963 when the government established Pilgrims Management and Fund Board or Lembaga Urusan dan Tabung Haji (LUTH). This Tabung Haji established to invest the savings of local Muslim who intand to perform pilgrim (Hajj) with interest free. Tabung Haji applied Mudharabah a profit and loss sharing, Musyarakah, a joint venture and Ijrah, a leasing. These methods are under guidance of National Fatawah Committee of Malaysia. Establishment of Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad started operation on July 1st 1983. This bank is the first bank who applied Sharia Compliants which is free in interest rate, and using profit and loss sharing. The establishment of Bank Islam is to develop any transaction in loan of money, leasing, which are related to Islamic way. Another company that established applying Islamic principles is Takaful Malaysia. This company is insurance company that applying shariah concept. The major shareholder of Takaful Malaysia is BIMB Holdings Berhad with equity 65.5%. The company objective is to provide insurance services based Islamic way with efficiency and professionalism to all Muslims and non Muslims in Malaysia. Nowadays, almost conventional bank have develop Islamic banking practice in one of their services which is gaining more benefits to all people. Islamic banking, the world accept the concept. Even non Muslims more choose Islamic financial rather than conventional financial in term of guaranteed for a years. 4.0 Objectives of Islamic Banking The goal of Islamic financing institution should be in conformity with the objectives of the Shariah itself (maqasid al-shariah). Muslims jurists have unanimously agreed that the welfare of the people and relief of their hardships is the basic objectives of Shariah. According to Al-Ghazali (Muhammad al-Ghazali: 1937) and al-Shatibi (Abu Ishaq al-Shatibi:pp 46-47) the welfare of the people which become objective of Shariah consist in five aspect : The very objective of the Shariah is to promote the welfare of the people which lies in safeguarding their faith (din), their human self (nafs), their intellect (aql) their posterity (nasl) and their wealth (mal). Whatever ensures the safeguard of these five serves public interest and is desirable. The objective of the Islamic financial system is based on Islamic Law and Shariah. The first objectives are to be treated as an important vehicle to transfer funds from the surplus to the deficit units. This is done to ensure the equitable allocation of capital to sectors which would yield the best returns to the owners of capital, thereby contributing towards the overall growth and expansion of an economy. Second objective of the Islamic financial system is to ensure that the surplus fund be attracted for worthwhile investments in accordance with the owners preference in terms of the extent of risk involvement, rate of return, as well as the period of investment. Third objective of the Islamic financial system is to help the fund owners to find sufficient opportunities to invest for the short-term. Since it is contrary to Shariah principles to hoard wealth, it is necessary for the wealth owners to invest their funds in projects of either short-term or long-term nature. Fourth objective of the Islamic financial system is to promote, foster and develop the application of Islamic principles, law and tradition to the transaction of financial, banking and related business affairs and to promote investment companies, enterprise and concern which shall themselves be engaged in business activities as are acceptable and consistent with Islamic principle, law and traditions. (M.Fahim Khan:1983) A fifth objective of the Islamic financial is to provide Shariah compliant and prudent banking opportunities, hence providing an opportunity to Muslims to do their banking transactions in a halal way. In other words, this is just an effort to avoid Riba and other prohibited elements from commercial and banking transactions. 5.0 Philosophy of Islamic Banking The Islamic Banking and financial system is part and parcel of Islamic economics system. Therefore, Islamic banking and financial system is founded on the basis of Islamic economic philosophy. The foundations of the Islamic economy lie in the following basic principles derived from various injunctions of the Quran and the Sunnah. There are three philosophical foundation of Islamic Banking which is tauhid, khalifah and adalah. 5.1 Tauhid (Unity of God) Tauhid is the essence of Islamic teaching. It is about the recognition that there is no gods, except the God. The God is One. It implicates that human being only submits him/her self to the will of God that implicitly recognizing the Gods sovereignty. The Quran says: to Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and on earth, and all between them and beneath the soil Tauhid signifies mans commitment and total submission to Allah, in all aspects of his life. The other part of tauhid gives men the sense of being equals, free and independent of one another while they are equally dependent on Allah. It teaches men how to relate and deal with other fellowmen in the light of his relationship with Allah. Thus, it implies the principles of brotherhood, that each man is brother to other men and they are equal partner (Abdul-Hamid A. Abu Sulaiman: 1976). 5.2 Khalifah (vicegerency) Khalifah means obligation, obligation to Allah the Creator and The Owner of The universe. Man is the best of creations Human beings are the only species having been endowed with the qualities of conscience, intelligence, thinking and choice in order to fulfil his mission as Gods vicegerent. His main purpose of living in this world is to serve God and Him alone. On the individual level, it means that man has to worship the one God, behave in an ethical manner and realize his higher tendencies. The concept vicegerency of man implies and stresses that man is not sovereign; the only sovereign is Allah the exalted. Man is responsible for the implementation of Allahs sovereignty through the laws given by Him. 5.3 Adalah (ownership) Adalah is an ownership. This means the authority and power of possession. Based on this principle, man is neither the absolute owner nor the total possessor of the earth and its resources. Absolute power and complete possession belong only to Allah who has created man and all other creatures. Mans ownership then is limited to whatever Allah has wisely willed and to the capacity of his intellect, authority and freedom granted to him. Mans ownership in his analogy, is limited, borrowed, conditional and entrusted. (Seyyed Mahmood Taleqani:1983). 6.0 The Principles of Islamic Financial Institutions Islamic financial institutions have an important role to play in the light of Islamic teachings in order to please Allah (SWT). The fundamental principle of Islam states that the separation between temporal and religious matters is not permitted, which implies the compliance with Shariah as the basis for all aspects of life. This compliance covers not only religious worship but also business practices. Islamic financial institutions must operate within the framework of the religion, based on Quran and Sunnah. Hence their activity, transactions and behaviour must be in line with these principles. The basic principles that Islamic financial institutions must follow are: 6.1 Business Framework Islamic Banking System is based on Shariah Laws. Syariah laws ensure adherence to Islamic laws and provide guidance while the conventional financial systems is based only on man-made laws and no religious laws. 6.2 Interest (Riba) Interest (riba) in Islam is forbidden. Hence, all banking activities must avoid interest. Instead of interest, the bank earns profit (mark up) and fees on financing facilities it extends to customers. Also, depositors earn a share of the banks profit as opposed to interest. Within Islamic financial institutions, it is not allowed to charge for the mere use of money. Islamic financial institutions must trade in real assets or services whereas conventional financial institutions trade in money (buying money from depositors and selling money in the form of loans). Most the activities of the conventional financial institutions are interest based financing. 6.3 Prohibited activities Shariah prohibits using in certain activities. Islamic financial system must encourage and develop the applications of Islamic principles and law to transactions of finance, banking and business affairs. It controls the engagements of investment companies in activities that are tolerable and consistent with the Shariah law thus preventing the occurrence of activities forbidden by Islam. Only halal are allowed. Islamic financing will, therefore, be inappropriate in financing any enterprise involved in any type of activities that is unlawful in Islam or harmful mankind. For example, Islamic Bank does not finance liquor manufacturing, transportation, storage or distribution companies. 6.4 Contractual Relationship Contractual relationship in Islamic financial institution depends upon the nature of transaction. It could be a seller-buyer relationship (Murabahah), a lessor-lessee relationship (Ijara), a partnership (Musharakah) or a creditor-debtor relationship (Qard Hassan). In conventional financial institutions has only one relationship which is a creditor-debtor relationship (Qard Hassan) 6.5 Participation and risk sharing Another principle of Islamic finance is based on partnership and the sharing of risks. Islamic financial institutions offer investor/depositors participation in risk sharing type packages rather than fixed interest on deposit. Any risk-bearing instruments reflecting a real asset and earning a variable rate of return tied to the performance of the asset is considered to be consistent with Islamic law. In contrast to conventional banking principles what is condemned in Islamic banking is the notion of a risk free reward or return. The Islamic financial system employs the concept of participation in the enterprise, utilizing the funds at risk on a profit and loss sharing basis, thus encouraging better resource management. Management of the enterprise can be in one of several forms depending on whether the financing is through Mudarabah, Musharaka and so on. The relation of investors to the institution is that of partners whereas that of conventional banking is that of creditor investor. The Islamic financial system is based on equity whereas the conventional banking system is loan based. 7.0 Modern banking operations according to shariah principles. Islamic banking refers to a system of banking or banking activity that is consistent with the principles of Islamic law (Shariah). The principles were used as the basis for a flourishing economy in earlier times, it is only in the late 20th century that a number of Islamic banks were formed to apply these principles to private or semi-private commercial institutions within the Muslim community. The first modern experiment with Islamic banking was undertaken in Egypt under cover without projecting an Islamic image. The first modern commercial Islamic bank, Dubai Islamic bank opened in 1975. In the early years, the products offered were basic and strongly founded on conventional banking products. However, in the last few years, the industry is starting to come up with strong development in new products and services. Islamic Banking is growing at a rate of 10-15% per year and with signs of consistent future growth. Islamic banks have more than 300 institutions spread over 51 countries, including the United States. It is estimated that over US$822 billion worldwide shariah-compliant assets are managed according to The Economist (Wikipedia) Islamic banking has the same purpose as conventional banking except its operates in accordance with the rules of Shariah, known as Fiqh al-Muamalat (Islamic rules on transactions). The basic principle of Islamic banking is the sharing of profit and loss and the prohibition of riba (usury). Common terms used in Islamic banking include profit sharing (Mudharabah), safekeeping (Wadiah), joint venture (Musharakah), cost plus (Murabahah), and leasing (Ijarah).(Wikipedia) Islamic banking is restricted to Islamic acceptable transactions, which exclude those involving alcohol, pork, gambling, etc. The aim of this is to engage in only ethical investing and moral purchasing. 7.1 Baial Inah (sale and buy-back agreement) Bai al inah is a financing facility with the underlying buy and sell transactions between the financier and the customer. The financier buys an asset from the customer on spot basis. The price paid by the financier constitutes the disbursement under the facility. Subsequently the asset is sold to the customer on a deferred-payment basis and the price is payable in installments. The second sale serves to create the obligation on the part of the customer under the facility. 7.2 BaiMuajjal (Credit Sale) Literally bai muajjal means a credit sale. Technically, it is a financing technique adopted by Islamic banks that takes the form of murabahah muajjal. It is a contract in which the bank earns a profit margin on the purchase price and allows the buyer to pay the price of the commodity at a future date in a lump sum or in installments. It has to expressly mention cost of the commodity and the margin of profit is mutually agreed. The price fixed for the commodity in such a transaction can be the same as the spot price or higher or lower than the spot price. Bai muajjal is also called a deferred-payment sale. However, one of the essential descriptions of riba is an unjustified delay in payment or either increasing or decreasing the price if the payment is immediate or delayed. 7.3 Musharakah (joint venture) Musharakah is an agreement between two or more partners, whereby each partner provides funds to be used in a venture. Under Islamic jurisprudence, Musharakah means a join enterprise formed for conducting some business in which all partners share the profit according to a specific ratio while the is shared according to the ratio of the contribution. Profits made are shared between the partners according to the invested capital. In case of loss, each partner loses capital in the same ratio. If the Bank provides capital, the same conditions apply. It is this financial risk, according to the Shariah, that justifies the banks claim to part of the profit. A working partner gets a greater profit share compared to a sleeping (non-working) partner.(Muhammad Imran Ashraf Usmani,2002) 7.4 Mudarabah A special kind of partnership where one partner gives money to another for investing it in a commercial enterprise. The investment comes from the first partner who is called rabb-ul-mal, while the management and work is an exclusive responsibility of the other, who is called mudarib and the profits generated are shared in a predetermined ratio. The Mudarabah (Profit Sharing) is a contract, with one party providing the capital and the other party providing its specialist knowledge to invest the capital and manage the investment project. Profits generated are shared between the parties according to a pre-agreed ratio. 7.5 Murabahah This concept refers to the sale of goods at a price, which includes a profit margin agreed to by both parties. The purchase and selling price, other costs, and the profit margin must be clearly stated at the time of the sale agreement. The bank is compensated for the time value of its money in the form of the profit margin. This is a fixed-income loan for the purchase of a real asset such as real estate or a vehicle, with a fixed rate of profit determined by the profit margin. The bank is not compensated for the time value of money outside of the contracted term, meaning the bank cannot charge additional profit on late payments, however, the asset remains as a mortgage with the bank until the default is settled. 7.6 Musawamah Negotiation of selling price between two parties without reference by the seller to the costs or asking price of the goods or item. While the seller may or may not have full knowledge of the cost of the item being negotiated, they are under no obligation to reveal these costs as part of the negotiation process. This difference in obligation by the seller is the key distinction between Murabahah and Musawamah with all other rules as described in Murabahah remaining the same. Musawamah is the most common type of trading negotiation seen in Islamic commerce. 7.7 Bai salam Means a contract which is made advance payment for goods that to be delivered later. The seller undertakes to supply some specific goods to the buyer at a future date in exchange of an advance price fully paid at the time of contract. It is necessary that the quality of the commodity intended to be purchased is fully specified leaving no ambiguity leading to dispute. The purpose of use Salam is to meet the need of small farmers who need money to grow their crops and to feed their family up to the time of harvest. Otherwise, it is important for import and export. Under Salam, it is allowed for them to sell the goods in advance. After receiving their cash price, they can easily undertake the aforesaid business. Salam is beneficial to the seller because he receive the price in advance and it was beneficial to the buyer because the price in Salam is lower than the price in spot sales. 7.8 Ijarah Means lease, rent or wage. Generally, Ijarah concept means selling the benefit of use or service for a fixed price or wage. Under this concept, the Bank makes available to the customer the use of service of assets / equipments such as plant, motor vehicle. 7.9 Ijarah wal iqtina A contract under Islamic bank provides equipment, building, or other assets to the client against an agreed rental together with a unilateral undertaking by the bank or the client. At the end of the lease period, the ownership in the asset would be transferred to the lessee. The undertaking or the promise does not become an integral part of the lease contract to make it conditional. The rentals as well as the purchase price are fixed in such manner that the bank gets back its principal sum along with profit over the period of lease. 7.10 Qard Hassan (good loan/benevolent loan) This is a loan extended on a goodwill basis, and the debtor is only required to repay the amount borrowed. However, the debtor may pay an extra amount beyond the principal amount of the loan without promising it, as a token of appreciation to the creditor. In the case that the debtor does not pay an extra amount to the creditor, this transaction is a true interest-free loan. Some Muslims consider this to be the only type of loan that does not violate the prohibition on riba, since it is the one type of loan that truly does not compensate the creditor for the time value of money. 7.11 Wadiah(safekeeping) In Wadiah, a bank is deemed as a keeper and trustee of funds. A person deposits funds in the bank and the bank guarantees refund of the entire amount of the deposit, or any part of the outstanding amount, when the depositor demands it. The depositor, at the banks discretion, may be rewarded with Hibah as a form of appreciation for the use of funds by the bank. Conclusion Today, Islamic banking practice had already worldwide. Almost all conventional bank in the world applied Islamic banking practice which is suitable to apply even the whole world having the economic crisis. Shaykh Yusuf DeLorenzo, a Virgina-based Islamic scholar says in the book of Islamic Banking-Finance in South-East Asia a financial system without interest is more interested. Islamic banking that is based on Shariah compliants prohibits an interest which is powerful tool of exploitation of one sector of society by another (Angelo M. Venardos). Shariah compliants have adopted principles of Islamic banking and finance to guide the people in any transaction that people do. The principles are such as Baial Inah (sale and buy-back agreement), Baial Inah (sale and buy-back agreement), Musharakah (joint venture), Mudarabah, Murabahah, Musawamah, Bai salam, Ijarah, Ijarah wal iqtina, Qard Hassan (good loan/benevolent loan), and Wadiah(safekeeping). But even Islamic banking practice now is worldwide and almost all people accept Islamic banking some issues have raised up example, why people non-Muslims more prefer choose Islamic banking rather than Muslims selves? Even though Islamic banking practice is the first built at Islamic countries with the populations are among Muslims example of Malaysia. This issue that related to Muslims people are such an embarrassed to Islam self cause the Muslims does not supported Islamic banking practice that now already spread to the world. The Muslims thought that Islamic banking charged highest interest rather than conventional system. This narrow thought must be cleared from their mind as not, Islam will down fall as before. Reference Basic story https://www.islamic-finance.com/item36_f.htm banking business past and present (function() { var scribd = document.createElement("script"); scribd.type = "text/javascript"; scribd.async = true; scribd.src = "https://www.scribd.com/javascripts/embed_code/inject.js"; var s = document.getElementsByTagName("script")[0]; s.parentNode.insertBefore(scribd, s); })() Mohd. Ali Muhamad Don:Mengembalikan Kegemilangan Baitul Mal seperti era Khalifah Umar https://www.utusan.com.my/utusan/info.asp?y=2010HYPERLINK https://www.utusan.com.my/utusan/info.asp?y=2010dt=1105pub=Utusan_Malaysiasec=Rencanapg=re_03.hhtmHYPERLINK https://www.utusan.com.my/utusan/info.asp?y=2010dt=1105pub=Utusan_Malaysiasec=Rencanapg=re_03.hhtmdt=1105HYPERLINK https://www.utusan.com.my/utusan/info.asp?y=2010dt=1105pub=Utusan_Malaysiasec=Rencanapg=re_03.hhtmHYPERLINK https://www.utusan.com.my/utusan/info.asp?y=2010dt=1105pub=Utusan_Malaysiasec=Rencanapg=re_03.hhtmpub=Utusan_MalaysiaHYPERLINK https://www.utusan.com.my/utusan/info.asp?y=2010dt=1105pub=Utusan_Malaysiasec=Rencanapg=re_03.hhtmHYPERLINK https://www.utusan.com.my/utusan/info.asp?y=2010dt=1105pub=Utusan_Malaysiasec=Rencanapg=re_03.hhtmsec=RencanaHYPERLINK https://www.utusan.com.my/utusan/info.asp?y=2010dt=1105pub=Utusan_Malaysiasec=Rencanapg=re_03.hhtmHYPERLINK https://www.utusan.com.my/utusan/info.asp?y=2010dt=1105pub=Ut usan_Malaysiasec=Rencanapg=re_03.hhtmpg=re_03.hhtm Islamic Banking in Malaysia https://www.islamic-world.net/islamic-state/malay_islambank.htm History of Banking https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_banking

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Mexican Immigrant Life and Americanization in the 1920’s Free Essays

In his book, Major Problems in Mexican American History, Zaragosa Vargas describes the Mexican Immigrant experience from 1917-1928. He begins by assessing the Protestant religious experience for a Mexican in the early 1920’s, and then describes Mexican life in both Colorado in 1924 and Chicago in 1928. After defending Mexican Immigrants in 1929, he includes an outline of an Americanization program, followed by an anecdote of a Mexican immigrant in the 1920’s. We will write a custom essay sample on Mexican Immigrant Life and Americanization in the 1920’s or any similar topic only for you Order Now Vargas uses these documents to show the evolvement of Americanization of Mexicans from a community goal to a societal demand. Vargas begins with the Mexican Immigrant experience in the early 1920’s, and describes it mostly as a community project spearheaded by the Church and called for the aid of volunteers. The children learned and studied English in school, so the programs focused mostly on courses in English for the wives and mothers of the community. These English courses consisted mostly of vocabulary for familiar and most frequently seen objects. Sunday schools resulted from this process, and in turn made way for the development of night schools, clinics, an employment bureau, and a boys and girl’s club. In Colorado in 1924, Mexicans played a respectable role in society as not only a decent part of the population, but also the labor force. Spanish-Americans took a notable part in politics, and were involved in many occupations that included mostly agriculture, mining, and steel works. The recreation was also important to Spanish-American life in Colorado; the somewhat newly developed buildings were a source of community for many. Mexicans in Chicago in 1928, Vargas argues, lived a very different lifestyle and endured different hardships than the Mexicans in the Southwest. They were a much smaller part of the community, consisting of small, well-defined neighborhoods and several smaller less defined colonies. These Mexicans lived in the poorest houses in these neighborhoods, and most buildings guaranteed poor living conditions for these families. Employment only came certain times during the year when demand for labor was high, and it was the Mexicans who suffered most when certain industries reduced labor. In the words of Anita Edgar Jones, â€Å"They are the last to arrive and the first to be laid off† (Vargas). Mexican Life in Chicago during this time period served as a temporary solution for many families as they moved from recent arrivals to a more desirable place with better opportunity as they became more established and stabilized. Some neighborhoods were poorly organized for recreation, and even lacked Spanish-speaking employees at their community or recreation centers. Communities also lacked a Spanish-speaking priest, which is evidently different from early Americanization programs implemented in the Southwest in the early 1920’s. After addressing and defending most of the problems of Mexican Immigration in 1929, Vargas moves on to an outline of a typical Americanization program in 1931, where the Mexican Immigrant experience evolved from a community project that supported and encouraged Mexican assimilation, to a list of demands and requirements for Mexican and Spanish Americans to be acceptable members of society. Vargas uses these documents to show the progression of assimilation of Spanish Americans and Mexican immigrants into American society in the 1920’s. The life of a Mexican Immigrant during this time was very taxing, and these Americanization programs were used as a tool to attempt to create a society that operated under certain ideologies and values. As a result, this created an even stronger division between cultures, and prevented assimilation of the two groups. How to cite Mexican Immigrant Life and Americanization in the 1920’s, Essay examples

Wednesday, April 29, 2020

Public Policy Administration in Modern Society

Table of Contents Introduction Healthcare inequalities Conclusion References Introduction Public policy administration can be defined as â€Å"the implementation of government policies, based on the expert analysis and the resolution of specific issues that generally have far-reaching impact on the citizens who live under the government in question† (Stewart, 2007).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Public Policy Administration in Modern Society specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Public policy is mainly handled by the following groups. First, we have interests groups and they are â€Å"people who always bargain on behalf of the citizens† (Cochran Mayer, 2011). For example they can pressurize for the implementation of the public interests. Secondly, we have politicians. This group of individuals is mainly preoccupied with the role of ensuring that the government operates within the country’s constitution and also implements its policies within the accepted framework (Stewart, 2007). The third group is the citizens and they mainly participate in public administration through voting. The public vote is very important because it is one of the key mechanisms that are used in choosing the public leaders. The constituents can channel their interests to the government through their representatives. Public policy is meant to improve the leaving conditions of the citizens and at the same time it is meant to ensure that the government bureaucracy is well maintained. In this case the policy stakeholders ensure that both the government and public interests are fulfilled. Healthcare inequalities People have always been discriminated in social economic and political circles. For example there many inequalities when it comes to access to medical and healthcare services. Healthcare inequality can be defined â€Å"as the disparities in the access to adequate healthcare between differen t gender, race, and socioeconomic groups† (Dolgoff, 2008). Healthcare inequalities are more common in countries which are poor and still develop as compared to the industrialized nations. However, healthcare inequalities have also been experienced in developed countries like USA (Dolgoff, 2008). There are three examples of healthcare inequalities in USA and they include the following. Socioeconomic constrains always hinder people from getting proper healthcare. For example the poor people in USA cannot take health insurance covers to cater for their medical bills. Most of the poor people do odd jobs which do not offer medical allowances.Advertising Looking for essay on government? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They are also not much aware of their healthcare needs due to their poor education backgrounds. The rich people on the other hand have enough money to spend on healthcare and in most cases they do well paying job s that provide incentives such as family health insurance cover. Health inequalities are also based on race. For instance in USA the provision of healthcare is still dictated by ones race. People from minority groups always get the worst medical attention and they do not have substantial health insurance covers compared to the whites who have well developed healthcare facilities and more insurance covers. The last category of healthcare inequality is gender based. Men in USA have less access to health care compared to women. Women are also perceived to be more conscious about their health status. This makes them struggle to have medical insurance programs than men do. Medical care is also generally expensive due to lack of enough government support (Cochran Mayer, 2011). Conclusion For the status of the American citizens to be uplifted it is important for the USA government to design policies that can boost the job market so that people can have enough resources to sustain themselv es. The citizens as one of the interests groups should also be given an opportunity to fully participate in the process of making and implementation of the public policies (Dolgoff, 2008). References Cochran, C., Mayer, L. (2011). American public policy; an introduction. Boston: Wadsworth. Dolgoff, R. (2008). Understanding social welfare: a search for social justice. New York: Allyn and Bacon. Stewart, J. (2007). Public policy: a revolutinary approach. Boston: Wadsworth.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Public Policy Administration in Modern Society specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This essay on Public Policy Administration in Modern Society was written and submitted by user Alexzander W. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.